What is diabetes mellitus & lifestyle and habits?
It is a major, and a non-communicable disease results when your body does not make enough insulin or cannot use the insulin it produces. Of which most common being type 2.It can lead to number of health issues, few including
- Heart diseases,
- Kidney disease,
- Nerve damage,
- Leg and foot amputations.
Minor changes in your lifestyle can greatly decrease your chances of getting this disease. Therefore, in order to prevent the condition, few actions should be taken regarding the modifiable factors that influence the development-lifestyle and natural diet of diabetes
Objectives of dietary treatment of diabetes mellitus
The Aims of dietary treatment of diabetes are following:
- achieve the optimal blood glucose concentrations and blood lipid concentrations.
- to provide appropriate energy for a reasonable weight, normal growth, and development, including during the pregnancy and lactation.
- prevent, delay, and treat the diabetes-related complications.
- improve health through balancing the nutrition.
The usually recommended daily energy intake for the non-obese diabetic patient is between 1500 and 2500 calories per day, the average allowance of the calorie intake being 2000 k calories per dayThe recommendation for the overweight diabetic patient should be between 800 and 1500 k calories per day, while the underweight (like that of growing children and adolescents) should be allowed at least about 2500 kcalories/day.
Accordingly this calorie planning the dietary chart with diabetes controlling foods and follow dietary guidelines to control diabetes.
Diets that are high in lots of insoluble fiber may offer the best protection against this metabolic disease. The Fruits and vegetables are high in a cellulose-a type of insoluble fiber. Diets that are high in this fiber may able to help in the management of diabetes. Soluble fiber delay glucose absorption from our small intestine and thus helps to prevent the spike in blood glucose levels that follow a meal or snack. This can be done by the alternative food substitutes for diabetics.
3 simple steps to managing your blood sugar with diet:
Begin a vegan diet: Avoid animal products
Animal products contain fat like especially saturated fat, which are linked to the heart disease, insulin resistance, and other certain forms of cancer. These products also contain huge cholesterol and, of course, animal protein.
Aim for 40 grams of fiber a day, in diet planning but start slowly. Load up on lots of beans, vegetables, and fruits. Choose the whole grains (like that of barley, oats, millet, whole-wheat, etc.). Aim for at least about 3 grams per serving on the food labels and at least 10 grams per the meal.
Avoid added vegetable oils and other high-fat food
Although most of the vegetable oils are in some ways healthier than the animal fats, you will still want to keep them to a some minimum. All the fats and the oils are highly concentrated in calories. A gram of any fat or oil will contains 9 calories, and compared with that of only 4 calories for a gram of carbohydrate, these calories counting can be done by the calorie calculator/ counter. Avoid foods like fried in oil, or oily toppings, and olives, avocados, and peanut butter which are high calorie content. Aim for no more than 2-3 grams of the fat per serving of food.
Favor foods with a low glycemic index
The glycemic index identifies foods that increase the blood sugar rapidly.
Things to avoid in dietary planning:
Reduce salt (“sodium”) in diet
High blood pressure may also be present or co exist with your diabetes. Limiting some salt you eat can help to keep your blood pressure low. Decrease the amount of salt you are adding during cooking and reducing salt in recipes, before adding salt at the table, taste first, try seasoning your food with (salt-free) herbs or spices, and garlic. Can try Lemon juice brings out the natural saltiness of foods. Avoid the processed foods that are high in salt (sodium chloride) such as present in the canned or packaged foods or condiments such as the mustard, watch for “Na” (sodium) on the food labels. Chips or pretzels, and other such snacks are very high in salt, and check with your physician before using salt substitutes.
- Limit the alcohol to less than 2 drinks per day (1 drink = 12 oz beer = 1.5 oz liquor = 4 oz wine)
- Drinking alcohol is not recommended at all if you have high triglycerides (blood fats) or have high blood pressure or have liver problems, are pregnant or breastfeeding
Drink not more than four (4) cups of coffee or caffeine-containing beverages per day.
ROLE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OR EXERCISE
If you are not physically active now, your doctor may recommend that you to increase your physical activity.
Important benefits of the regular aerobic exercise program in diabetes management include:
- Decreased need for the insulin,
- While Decrease risk of the obesity,
- By Decreasing risk for the heart disease
- Decreases the total cholesterol,
- Improves the ratio of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL),
- Reduces the blood triglycerides.
- Decrease the blood pressure and lower the stress levels. .
Among all the walking is one of the easiest and the healthiest ways to exercise.
Few interesting facts about diabetes:
- Merely having a sweet tooth or eating “too much” sugar, however, doesn’t cause diabetes in a healthy person. The reality is your risk of diabetes increases due to many interrelated factors.
- The risk of diabetes further increases for someone who has an immediate family member with diabetes, so eating too much sugar alone won’t give you diabetes.
- Diabetes, once developed, is a lifelong condition. While it can’t be cured completely, it can be managed.With proper diabetes management, including medications and lifestyle modifications, you can lead a normal and fulfilling life.
- Diabetes is not restricted to the older age group. In fact, three-fourths of the people with diabetes belong to the working-age group. Many children and adolescents have type 1 diabetes, too.
- It’s a common notion that having diabetes and getting started on treatment means you have to refrain from absolutely all sweets. However, with well-controlled blood glucose levels and regular exercise, it’s generally safe to have a sweet once in a while.
- Research suggests that some cases of diabetes and depression share similar biological origins. Hormonal imbalance as well as high blood glucose in diabetes causes an imbalance in the neurotransmitters, ultimately causing depression.
- Unlike full-blown diabetes, prediabetes causes slightly high blood glucose levels. Without proper care, prediabetes can lead to a diabetes diagnosis and the serious issues that come with it. To preempt this development, it’s important to keep an eye on your blood glucose levels.
- Foot-related problems in diabetes occur due to poor blood circulation, damage to the nerves and slower healing. Proper diabetes care and regular inspection of your feet can help to avoid such problems.
- Despite being particular about your medications, diet and exercise, your blood glucose levels may be high and your doctor may tell you to start taking insulin. (source)
Ways to avoid complications of diabetes:
- Members of your diabetes care team — doctor or primary care provider, diabetes nurse educator, and dietitian, for example — can help you learn the basics of diabetes care and offer support along the way. But it’s up to you to manage your condition.
- Smoking increases your risk of type 2 diabetes and the risk of various diabetes complications, including:
Reduced blood flow in the legs and feet, which can lead to infections, ulcers and possible removal of a body part by surgery (amputation)
Eye disease, which can lead to blindness
- High cholesterol is a concern, too, since the damage is often worse and more rapid when you have diabetes. When these conditions team up, they can lead to a heart attack, stroke or other life-threatening conditions.
- Schedule two to four diabetes checkups a year, in addition to your yearly physical and routine eye exams.
- Diabetes makes it more likely you’ll get certain illnesses. Routine vaccines can help prevent them. Ask your doctor about:
Hepatitis B vaccine.
tetanus shot (usually given every 10 years).
- Diabetes may leave you prone to gum infections. Brush your teeth at least twice a day with a fluoride toothpaste, floss your teeth once a day and schedule dental exams at least twice a year.
- To prevent foot problems:
Wash your feet daily in lukewarm water. Avoid soaking your feet, as this can lead to dry skin.
Dry your feet gently, especially between the toes.
Moisturize your feet and ankles with lotion or petroleum jelly. Do not put oils or creams between your toes — the extra moisture can lead to infection.
Check your feet daily for calluses, blisters, sores, redness or swelling.
Consult your doctor if you have a sore or other foot problem that doesn’t start to heal within a few days. If you have a foot ulcer — an open sore — see your doctor right away.
Don’t go barefoot, indoors or outdoors.
- If you have diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors, such as smoking or high blood pressure, your doctor may recommend taking a low dose of aspirin every day to help reduce your risk of heart attack and stroke.
- Alcohol can cause high or low blood sugar, depending on how much you drink and whether you eat at the same time. If you choose to drink, do so only in moderation, which means no more than one drink a day for women of all ages and men older than 65 and two drinks a day for men age 65 and younger.
- If you’re stressed, it’s easy to neglect your usual diabetes care routine. To manage your stress, set limits. Prioritize your tasks. Learn relaxation techniques.
- Get plenty of sleep. And above all, stay positive. Diabetes care is within your control.(source)
list of foods to be avoided by diabetes mellites:
- Sodas and sweet drinks are high in carbs, which increase blood sugar. Also, their high fructose content has been linked to insulin resistance.
- Trans fats are unsaturated fats that have been chemically altered to increase their stability. They have been linked to inflammation, insulin resistance, increased belly fat and heart disease.
- White bread, pasta and rice are high in carbs yet low in fiber. This combination can result in high blood sugar levels.
- Fruit-flavored yogurts are usually low in fat but high in sugar, which can lead to higher blood sugar and insulin levels.
- Breakfast cereals are high in carbs but low in protein. A high-protein, low-carb breakfast is the best option for diabetes and appetite control.
- Flavored coffee drinks are very high in liquid carbs, which can raise blood sugar levels and fail to satisfy your hunger.
- Honey, agave nectar and maple syrup are not as processed as white table sugar, but they may have similar effects on blood sugar, insulin, and inflammatory markers.
- Packaged snacks are typically highly processed foods made from refined flour that can quickly raise your blood sugar levels.
- Unsweetened fruit juice contains at least as much sugar as sodas do. Its high fructose content can worsen insulin resistance, promote weight gain and increase the risk of heart disease.
- French fries are fried in unhealthy oils that may promote inflammation and increase the risk of heart disease and cancer.(source)
For more related articles regarding diabetes:
- The lists of foods to be avoided by diabetes and their alternatives
- Diabetes & Diet: Few best foods to control diabetes
- How to reduce weight in a healthy way?
- The role of glycemic index in control of diabetes mellitu