What Are Oral Cavity and Oro-pharyngeal Cancers?
Cancer starts when cells in the body start to grow out of control. Cells in nearly any part of the body can become cancer and can spread to other parts of the body.
Oral cavity cancer, or just oral cancer, is cancer that starts in the mouth (also called th oeral cavity). Oro-pharyngeal cancer starts in the oro-pharynx(This is the part of the throat just behind the mouth).
Most cancers that form here are a type of cancer called squamous cell carcinoma.
The incidence of mouth cancer among men in Pondicherry, India was 8.9 per 100 000, one of the highest rates in the world for men.
we have conducted a study on the association between the oral cavity and the oro-pharyngeal squamous cell cancer in the patients who have attended JIPMER, Pondicherry, from the period of 2014 to 2015.
There are various factors that determine the formation of cancer especially oral cancer in many people like tobacco chewing, alcohol drinking, smoking, etc. After a detailed examination of each patient through both questioner and physical examinations. We found that there is a high possibility of association of HPV (Human papilloma virus) in the development of oral cancer
What is the Human papilloma virus?
HPV is a sexually transmitted infection (STI). It is a virus and there are many different types of HPV( type 16 and 18 mostly commonly and others include 31, 33, 45, 52, 58)
Some types can cause health problems including genital warts and cervical cancers and oral cancers.
HPV can be passed even when an infected person has no signs or symptoms. infected person also can develop symptoms years after having sex with someone who is infected.
Being one of the main study researchers of the oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma association with HPV. We found amazing and quite astonishing results about the association of the HPV with oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers.
How did we confirm the results?
we have collected data from 92 patients between 18 and 90 years of age from, in Pondicherry with suspected oral cavity and oro-pharyngeal cancer. Patients age, sex addiction to alcohol and smoking, etc are obtained from each patient. All the patients are subjected to biopsy. A punch biopsy was taken from the lesions by me and Biopsy samples were sent for histopathological diagnosis from the lesion area. After the tissues were confirmed as squamous carcinomas(cancer). The Frozen sections were taken to confirm the presence of malignancy and the frozen sections were scrapped off and homogenized for DNA isolation. In this study, HELINI purefast tissue genomic DNA minispin prep kit is used for obtaining genomic DNA and finally conducted conventional PCR testing to know whether the tissues are infected with virus.
OUR FINDINGS OF THE STUDY:
The study demonstrated the association of type 18 is predominantly found (85.71%)
The mean age of subjects with detectable HPV is around 60 years, with female
A number of participants in the study are of (7.14%) HPV (+)ve have early exposure to sex when compared (2.56%) HPV(-)ve group.
How to prevent HPV infections?
Various strains of HPV spread through sexual contact and are associated with most cases of cervical cancer and oral cavity and oro- pharyngeal cancers
Gardasil 9 is an HPV vaccine approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and can be used for both girls and boys.
This vaccine can prevent most cases of cervical cancer and oral cancer if given before a girl or woman is exposed to the virus. In theory, vaccinating boys against the types of HPV associated with cancer might also help protect girls from the virus by possibly decreasing transmission.
Two doses of the HPV vaccine are recommended for all boys and girls at ages 11-12; The vaccine can be given as early as age 9. If you wait until they’re older, they may need three doses instead of two .
HPV vaccine likely offers some protection against these cancers of both cervical and oral cavity and oro-pharyngeal cancers.
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