The deposition of calcium( calcification) is necessary for healthy bone but that is not in case of the blood vessels where the deposition of the calcium in the blood vessels causes various health issues.
This calcification in the arteries causes the stiffing leading to atherosclerosis changes in vessels and thereby impeding the flow of nourishing the blood to tissues and organs. This directly can lead to the risk of cardiovascular conditions, such as high blood pressure, heart attack, and stroke even dementia.
Recent research work is done by the scientists at the University of Cambridge and King’s College London, both in the United Kingdom, have revealed the various cellular and chemical mechanisms that cause the Harding of the arteries.
The research study moved around the molecule called PAR,(poly(ADP-ribose). This molecular is said to play a vital role in DNA repair, this recent study showed that this PAR could form “dense liquid droplets with calcium ions,” which thereby crystallizes when combined with the elastic tissues in artery walls. leading to the calcification of the arteries.
The most commonly used acne curing drug called minocycline has the function of blocking the PAR- triggered calcification and this antibiotic hence helps in preventing the stiffing of the vessels.
Calcification and stiffing of the vessels
Artery hardening happens to everyone as they age, and the reasons are many, out which one of the main reason is oxidation stress.
The research study papers, the authors explained that calcification in the arteries occurs as part of atherosclerosis and this Hardening of the media usually happens during aging.
The study wanted to find out what triggers the calcification, which takes the form of calcium phosphate crystals. the researchers are particularly interested in finding out why the deposits seem to concentrate around the collagen and elastin, which makes up much of the artery wall.
In previous research studies, it was proven that the PAR associated with DNA repair inside cells, can also operate outside of cells as a driver of bone tissue production.
That finding led them to wonder whether PAR could also have a role in calcification of other tissues. During the oxidative stress two enzymes that produce PAR — PARP1 and PARP2. scientists latter correlated that the oxidative stress and DNA repair is associated with the calcium deposition in the arteries.
The PAR is said to have a strong affinity to calcium ions, once it is outside of the cell, it attaches firmly to calcium in preference to other minerals. in this process they form large calcium droplets in the vessels collagen and elastin( the materials in the arteries which provide the elasticity to the vessels). once they combine with them they crystallize forming the stiffening of the arteries.
The research had shown the role of PAR in artery calcification, the teams then went in search of a way to stop it. they focused on the PARP inhibitor, which is a molecule that blocks PAR production by blocking one of the enzymes that synthesize it.
Minocycline- PARP inhibitor
The researchers tested on six molecules One of these, minocycline, proved to be very effective at stopping arteries from becoming stiff in rats with long-term kidney disease.
The team hopes to be conducting human trials of the treatment for coronary artery atherosclerosis within the next 2 years. This can help in clogged arteries reversal.
The spotlight on the research involving the heart attack and the pathogen-sis showed new approaches in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
The researches investigated and found the role of PAR in arterial calcification, which is the predisposing factor of heart diseases. thereby concluded that PARP inhibitor, mino-cycline( an acne-treating drug) has a potential effect on blocking PAR production.
Human trials are yet to be done, but this research helped in bringing forward a new mode of treatment of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease patients especially atherosclerosis issues.
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